By Peter Paolella
Creation to Molecular Biology makes a speciality of molecular biology ideas and not more on extended facts and topics. It provides an outstanding framework of techniques to raised arrange scholars for extra distinctive classes in molecular biology and genetics. Written for technological know-how majors, this introductory, one-semester molecular biology textual content is designed for a sophomore-level direction and assumes common biology and chemistry classes as a prerequisite.
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Extra resources for Introduction to Molecular Biology
Bleaching of ﬂuorescence dyes was also used as a tool for single-cell ﬂuorescence spectroscopy. The electronic interaction of DNA base pairs leads to oxidation of bound ﬂuorescence dye and this in turn to ﬂuorescence bleaching, which enables discrimination of DNA information at the single-molecule level . Moreover, ﬂuorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) can be used for biological investigations of molecular dynamics in living cells. Examples for FRAP analyses are studies on integrin dynamics  or RNA motion .
Moreover, biomolecular composition of tissue can be determined by Raman spectroscopy, for example, applied for discrimination of normal liver, viable tumor, and ﬁbrotic hepatoblastoma . For Raman scattering analysis, a relatively high concentration of molecules (or high laser intensity) is necessary. Spectrum of single molecules, therefore, cannot be detected. Surface enhanced raman scattering (SERS) can solve this problem and make this method sensitive enough for FCM . Another vibrational spectroscopic technique, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), allows for noninvasive monitoring of oxygenation and perfusion [86–89], functional brain imaging , or examination of normal and malignant tissue, for example, applied for breast cancer imaging .
Bioinformatics tools, that is, algorithms for cluster analyses, can be applied [40–42]. 4 Cytometry – State of the Art Routine are still ﬂuorescence analyses with a relatively low amount of measured parameters (sample stained with three to four colors). , Quantum dots ) and, of course, instruments capable for multiparametric analyses, led to the increased usage of multiparametric, that is, multicolor, analyses in laboratories worldwide. , [8, 22, 44]). Multicolor analyses allow for detailed understanding of complex cellular structures, cell subtypes, and cell–cell interactions.
Introduction to Molecular Biology by Peter Paolella