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By I. K Kikoin

ISBN-10: 5030005323

ISBN-13: 9785030005324

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This is analogous to the transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism at the Curie point. The temperature marking the transition from ferroelectric phase to paraelectric phase is also called the Curie point, or Curie temperature. Kurchatov showed that the change from ferroelectric to paraelectric behaviour in ferroelectrics at the Curie point is accompanied by a heat release, which also occurs in ferromagnetics. This is termed the electrocaloric effect, and for ferromagnetics it is called the magnetocaloric effect.

Thus the theory constructed by the Soviet physicists contributed significantly to the development of the new technology. Up to the late 1920s, the physicists of the world were concentrating their efforts The Advance of Soviet Physics 59 on the structure of the atom, its electron shell, and the physics of metals. The atomic structure only attracted a few scientists, mainly physicists of Rutherford’s school in Britain and that of Marie Curie in France. In the Soviet Union, only Lev Mysovsky at the Leningrad Radium Institute and Dmitry Skobeltsyn at the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute and the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute were interested in nuclear physics.

Lt gave a comprehensive qualitative interpretation of the properties of metals, insulators, and semiconductors under various conditions. Only superconductivity remained unexplained. It was only in 1957, some 46 years after the discovery of superconductivity, that the phenomenon was accounted lor by a microscopic theory formulated by the Soviet scientist Acade- 56 Encounters with Physicists and Physics mician Nikolai Bogolyubov and, independently, by the American physicists John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Schrieffer (the Bardeen·Cooper-Schrieffer, or BCS, theory).

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Encounters with physicists and physics (Science for Everyone) by I. K Kikoin


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