By W. F. Carson IV, S. L. Kunkel (auth.), Prof. Jean-Louis Vincent (eds.)
The Yearbook compiles the latest advancements in experimental and medical learn and perform in a single finished reference e-book. The chapters are written by means of good well-known specialists within the box of in depth care and emergency medication. it truly is addressed to all people all in favour of inner drugs, anesthesia, surgical procedure, pediatrics, extensive care and emergency medicine.
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Extra resources for Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2012
Brain Behav Immun 8: 14 – 23 15. Elenkov I, Wilder RL, Chrousos GP, Vizi ES (2000) The sympathetic nerve – an integrative interface between to super systems: The brain and the immune system. Pharmacol Rev 52: 595 – 638 16. Miksa M, Das P, Zhou M, et al (2009) Pivotal role of the a2A-adrenoceptor in producing inflammation and organ injury in a rat model of sepsis. PLoS ONE 4:e5504 17. Spengler R, Allen RM, Demick DG, Strieter RM, Kunkel SL (1990) Stimulation of alphaadrenergic receptor augments the production of macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor.
Catecholamines can increase or decrease the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, depending on whether they act on α- or β-adrenergic receptors [17, 43]. There is recent evidence that β2-adrenergic receptors of regulatory T-cells are critical for the anti-inflammatory potential of the vagus nerve [44, 45]. But this phenomenon does not explain the role of the α7-subunit in the context of stimulation of the N. vagus. It is possible that acetylcholine released from the N. vagus affects neurons in the plexus celiacus expressing the α-7-subunit and thus enables the release of norepinephrine from fibers terminating in the spleen [46, 47] (Fig.
Dorsalis n. vagi, which is the origin of the preganglionic neurons. The axons of those preganglionic neurons constitute the efferent part of the N. vagus. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, the efferent arm of the inflammatory reflex, consists of the efferent N. vagus, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the α7-subunit of the nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor . It has been shown that the spleen is essential for inflammation control by the vagal nerve . Furthermore, there is evidence that the N.
Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2012 by W. F. Carson IV, S. L. Kunkel (auth.), Prof. Jean-Louis Vincent (eds.)