By Mitsugi Senda
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Extra resources for Analytical Chemistry–4. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
A-Calibration has a side branch, much used in biochemical and pharma cological analysis. The analytical procedure is calibrated with some standard sample whose content has been determined in some arbitrarily agreed unit, mostly based on the observation of some biological effect of interest. Exam ples are the international units for antibiotics or those for vitamins. This co-calibration (with agreed units) may also be useful in future for nonbiological trace determinations. The most important calibration method for trace determinations is the δ-calibration (by differential additions).
The use of the term "(analytical) noise" in chemical analysis should not mislead one into supposing, by analogy, that the main source of fluctuations is to be found in the electronic part of the apparatus. Other sources of fluctuations often affect the blank measure (and the signal) more seriously; the electronic 'noise', even if perceptible, may be of no importance. The chemical, physical and environmental random perturbations listed above, and many others, vary so widely in appearance, temporal distribution and frequency that it is certainly hard to subsume all this under "(analytical) noise", a term which always evokes its original sensuous meaning.
KAISER sample. The main problem is to ensure that the added quantity of the com ponent is in the same physical and chemical condition as that part of the component which was originally present or which was previously added. The whole of the component must behave in the same way when undergoing analysis. Reliable calibration may well be considered as the very crux of trace determinations. It may be unattainable, not in principle, but in practice. Sometimes one may be partly successful on a lower level, when the analytical task includes comparison of different samples.
Analytical Chemistry–4. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry by Mitsugi Senda